Although landrace is a term used in many areas, this page will be using it as descriptors of a yeast or mixed culture that derives from a traditional farmhouse/landrace brewing cultures from around the world (note that kveik, while considered "landrace" yeast, is split off onto its own page for wiki management purposes). This term was first used to describe yeast by Tyrawa et al. (2018) to describe traditional Norwegian kveik yeast , and to distinguish them from Saison yeast, which are also sometimes referred to as "farmhouse yeast" . The exact definition of the word "landrace" is debated in the Plant Sciences, and is therefore outside the scope of this wiki . The original owners of these yeasts pitch them at a wide variety of temperatures depending on the culture, anywhere from 5°C up to 40°C, but the majority being pitched at around body temperature. Some Finnish farmhouse brewers reported pitching their yeast at cooler temperatures (5-15°C). Garshol (2020) reported 5 types of farmhouse yeasts that have been collected as of 2020:
- 'Kveik', a group of 35 domesticated yeast cultures from western Norway that form a subgroup of the Beer 1 genetic group of brewers yeast. They are non-phenolic and non-diastatic, and ferment quickly at high temperatures without producing typical off-flavors.
- 'Gong', a group of 3 cultures from the Hallingdal valley located in Eastern Norway.
- 'Berm', a group of 2 cultures fromm Tinn country in Telemark, Eastern Norway.
- Ten cultures from Latvia and Lithuania.
- Three cultures from Chuvash Republic in Russia .
The term "landrace" should not be equated to "kveik". Kveik has been suggested to be a subtype of landrace yeast, but "kveik" is a term used specifically for Norwegian farmhouse brewing yeast and mixed cultures. More information on Norwegian kveik can be found on the Kveik page. for more information, see also "Farmhouse yeast: what do we know?" by Lars Marius Garshol.
|Yeast||Registry Num||Yeast Lab||Package||Notes|
|Muri||4||Mainiacal Yeast||Dried Kveik - Muri||The full, unpurified (no microbes isolated or removed) culture. Limited availability. Muri is genetically the same as WLP351 Bavarian Weizen, and therefore probably a contaminant and not actual farmhouse yeast; see below.|
|Muri||4||White Labs||WLP6788 Norwegian Farmhouse Ale||A single strain from a farm called Muri in Olden, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway (6788 is the zip code). It was supposedly used in traditional farmhouse brewing up until 1990, then left in dried form in a building on the farm. The son on the farm attempted to revive . Muri has since been found to be genetically the same as WLP351 Bavarian Weizen, and was therefore probably a contaminant from the attempted revival of the original kveik and not actual farmhouse yeast; see below for details. Purchase from Bryggselv.no. US customers send an email to post @ bryggselv.no.|
|Muri||4||Propagate Lab||MIP-341||Muri is genetically the same as WLP351 Bavarian Weizen, and therefore probably a contaminant and not actual farmhouse yeast; see below.|
|Simonaitis||16||The Yeast Bay||Simonaitis Lithuanian Farmhouse||Single strain isolate kindly provided by Julius Simonaitis via Lars Garshol. Across a wide temperature range this culture will throw a mix of orange, tropical fruit and stone fruit esters that is reminiscent of POG Juice (passionfruit, orange, guava), and produces distinct spicy/earthy/herbal undertones. While not a “kveik” strain, it handles high temperatures and high gravity worts well, with an upper fermentation temperature of 95ºF and a high alcohol tolerance (>10%) .|
|Simonaitis||16||Propagate Lab||MIP-346||Potentially the original, unpurified culture. This culture does contain Lactobacillus and will contribute some acidity .|
|Simonaitis||16||Escarpment Laboratories||September 2020: Simonaitis / Simonaitis + Lact||Offered as the single isolate without bacteria, and the single isolate with a Lactobacillus strain from the original culture. The Lactobacillus strain is hop sensitive. Potentially a one-time release under the lab's monthly "Kveik Ring" kveik release .|
|Jovaru||32||Omega Yeast Labs||Jovaru™||This strain tests positive for the STA1 gene, an indicator of a diastatic strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This strain may have the ability to metabolize dextrins over time, resulting in higher than expected attenuation. JOVARU™ is an ALDONA UDRIENĖ™ yeast strain that originates from the famous JOVARU™ Brewery that has been in operation since the mid-19th century . A portion of the revenue from this culture is given to Aldona Udriene.|
|Probably Jovaru||Probably 32||Propagate Lab||BTN-79 Lithuanian Queen Farmhouse||This culture is STA1+ and attenuates into the high 80's. Probably the same as Omega Yeast Labs Jovaru™.|
|Marina||39||Mainiacal Yeast||Farmhouse - Marina||Russian landrace yeast; sold in liquid form only, does not survive drying . POF+.|
|Marina||39||Escarpment Laboratories||Marina Russian Farmhouse||Russian landrace yeast; does not survive drying . POF+ and good for Belgian style beers. Can be pitched anywhere from 25ºC to 39ºC, with cleaner results at the lower end . This culture contains a strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus which should be easily controllable with moderate use of hops . Potentially a one-time release under the lab's monthly "Kveik Ring" kveik release.|
|Marina||39||Propagate Lab||MIP-350||A mixed culture; diastatic yeast (STA1+) .|
|Rima||40||Mainiacal Yeast||Farmhouse - Rima||Russian landrace yeast; sold in liquid form only, does not survive drying . POF+.|
Specific Culture Information
Until the introduction of Emil Chr. Hansen's pure-yeast system in 1883, all yeast was treated in effectively the same way as kveik. However, pure lab yeast generally replaced the ancient cultures all over the world. In farmhouse brewing, the old practices continued until quite recently in several Nordic and Baltic countries. Farmhouse brewing still continues in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. As far as is known, Lithuania is the only country other than Norway in which the old yeast cultures are still alive, and used in the same way as they were in the past. See Lithuanian beer - a rough guide for more information. Genetically speaking, these yeast cultures are generally not in the same family as kveik, and thus are not referred to as "kveik". The alternative nomenclature of "Landrace yeast" has been suggested by Richard Preiss.
Below are the listed known Farmhouse cultures and information we've been able to compile on them.
One yeast has been collected from farmhouse brewer Julius Simonaitis in Joniškelis, Lithuania. It's a communal yeast that's been shared with the neighbors since time immemorial. NCYC says the yeast consists of 5 different strains of S. cerevisiae . Four of these are closely related, while the fifth is quite different, and is probably a completely different strain. All seem to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Technically, this culture is not considered to be "kveik" because it genetically falls outside of the kveik families and because it is POF+ (phenolic producing) .
Julius pitches the yeast at 35C and top-harvests it. He ferments 12-16 hours, depending on activity.
People trading this culture have reported that there are lactic acid bacteria present in the culture. It is not known if this lactic acid bacteria was present from the source, or if it was introduced during trading. Julius Simonaitis's beers are reported to not be sour, but he uses a lot of hops in his beer and his beer is reportedly fairly bitter. DeWayne Schaaf reported that the lactic acid bacteria present in the culture he was given produced a favorable acidity. Lars Garshol is waiting on lab results to see if the lactic acid bacteria were present in the original culture .
- See this MTF thread by DeWayne Schaaf for tips and experiences with brewing with this culture, as well as links to more information about Lithuanian farmhouse brewing.
- Simonaitis "Data Collection" thread by Zach Taggart, gathering experiences with this blend from MTF'ers.
- See this MTF thread for culturing and trading project.
This is another Lithuanian strain from the Jovaru Alus brewery in the small community of Jovarai. The brewer, Aldona Udriene, discusses the history of this true farmhouse brewery in this article. She expressed in the article that she was reluctant to give up the yeast, but Omega Yeast Labs reached an agreement with her to bank the culture and offer it for sale as the product OYL-033. Omega Yeast Labs describes the yeast as, "citrusy esters and restrained phenols..." and having the "character of lemon pith, black pepper, and a soft mouthfeel." The Omega Yeast Labs culture is a single isolate, and Lance Shaner says that there was no evidence of more than one strain of S. cerevisiae in the culture that they received, although there was a Lactobacillus contamination which they removed from the commercially offered Omega Yeast Labs product . Some DNA analysis shows that this strain has a similar degree of separation from S. cerevisiae that other Saccharomyces species included in the analysis do, indicating that this might be a new or different species of Saccharomyces  (~1:01:30 min in).
(Fast forward to 19:40):
Rima and Marina
Two strains of landrace farmhouse yeast cultures from Chuvashia, Russia were analyzed by Richard Preiss of Escarpment Laboratories referred to by the family names "Rima" and "Marina" (see this tweet and this tweet by Lars Marius Garshol, and the full blog post by Lars). The lab performed ITS sequencing, PCR fingerprinting, and mini 7 day ferments with these strains. Both of the strains were S. cerevisiae, and they were both POF+ (phenol producers), which is distinct from Norwegian kveik strains which are POF- (do not produce phenols). Russian farmhouse yeast that remains unpurified by a lab is called "zakvaska" .
According to the PCR fingerprinting, Rima contained at least two strains of S. cerevisiae but maybe more, as well as a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii (a fairly common beer contaminant). The first strain of S. cerevisiae was described as "fruity, relatively clean, and fermented similar to WLP001". The second strain of S. cerevisiae produced high amounts of diacetyl and under attenuated. The Pichia was described as "pretty gross and didn't attenuate much (on its own)".
Marina contained what appears to be three closely related S. cerevisiae strains. They all showed pretty low attenuation after one week, but subsequent fermentations can be carried out longer. The flavors were described as "pretty neutral". There is a fourth yeast strain in the Marina that has yet to be identified .
These landrace cultures are listed in the farmhouse registry as #39 and #40. Propagate Lab and Mainiacal Yeast offer Marina commercially. They are being traded by homebrewers and single isolates are available from the NCYC (NCYC 4247 is Marina and NCYC 4263 is Rima).
Bjarne Muri's Olden Yeast
It was initially found by Krogerus et al. (2018) that the single Muri strain recovered by Bjarne Muri is a hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, and is most closely related to the beer 2 yeast group (kveik falls into the Beer 1 group; see History of Domestication for more information on the beer yeast genetic groups) . Unlike kveik, Muri is POF+ (phenolic) and STA1 (diastatic). Krogerus then performed full genome sequencing on the Muri strain and discovered that it is a genetic match for WLP351 Bavarian Weizen yeast. This strain is either a contaminant (most likely) or the original yeast used by the Muri family was the same as the WLP351 Bavarian Weizen strain. Krogerus's finding was independently replicated by Langdon et al. (2019) .
- Details on the Muri identification by Lars Marius Garshol.
- MTF post by Kristoffer Krogerus that explains their 2018 study that discovered that Muri is a hybrid yeast that is not genetically related to other kveik strains.
Yeast banking and commercial availability:
- NCYC 4045 - One strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
- It is packaged by White Labs as WLP6788 and available from Bryggselv.no. US customers can send an email to "post @ bryggselv.no". See source information on Lars Garshol's blog for brewing notes.
- The "Norwegian Farmhouse Ale" strain from Brewing Science Institute is likely Muri, but this has not been verified .
Additional Articles on MTF Wiki
- "Historical Brewing Techniques" by Lars Marius Garshol.
- Lars Garshol's "Farmhouse Registry" database of all landrace farmhouse yeasts, including kveik.
- MTF thread discussing the usage of the word "landrace" for these farmhouse yeasts.
- Traditional farmhouse brewer, maltster, and Gotlandsdricke from Gotland.
- "How to Brew Keptinis", a Lithuanian style of farmhouse ale using baked bread our of mash grains. See also this MTF thread on experiences of MTF members brewing this style of beer.
- Beoirfest presentation by Lars Marius Garshol on Lithuanian farmhouse brewing.
- Traditional Norwegian Kveik Are a Genetically Distinct Group of Domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brewing Yeasts. Richard Preiss, Caroline Tyrawa, George van der Merwe, Kristoffer Krogerus, Lars Marius Garshol. 2018.
- Richard Preiss. Milk The Funk Facebook thread on the various definitions of the term "landrace". 11/30/2018.
- Toward an Evolved Concept of Landrace. Francesc Casañas, Joan Simó, Joan Casals, and Jaime Prohens. 2017.
- Pitch Temperatures in Traditional Farmhouse Brewing. Lars Marius Garshol. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. August 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03610470.2020.1805699.
- Conversation with Lars Garshol. 6/4/2015.
- Simonaitis Lithuanian Farmhouse. The Yeast Bay website. Retrieved 07/06/2019.
- Propagate Lab website. Retrieved 07/11/2020.
- Escarpment Labs website, 09/10/2019. Retrieved 09/10/2019.
- Jovaru Lithuanian Farmhouse Yeast. Omeaga Yeast Labs website. Retrieved 05/16/2019.
- Mainiacal Yeast Instagram. 09/30/2019. Retrieved 09/30/2019.
- Mainiacal Yeast Instagram. 09/30/2019. Retrieved 09/30/2019.
- Escarpment Labs website. Retrieved 02/12/2020.
- Justin Amaral. MTF thread about what species are in Marina farmhouse yeast. 08/06/2020.
- Mainiacal Yeast Instagram. 09/30/2019. Retrieved 09/30/2019.
- Lars Marius Garshol. Milk The Funk Facebook thread on the number of strains in Simonaitis. 01/18/2019.
- Lars Marius Garshol. Private correspondence with Dan Pixley. 07/11/2018.
- Richard Preiss. Family tree diagram of kveik cultures (Simonaitis is called "Joniskelis" in the diagram). Retrieved 07/11/2018.
- Lars Garshol, James Thor, and DeWayne Schaaf. Milk The Funk facebook group. 06/22/2017.
- Lance Shaner. Milk The Funk thread about the Jovaru yeast strain from Omega Yeast Labs. 09/26/2018.
- "Lithuanian Countryside Yeast Tales". Tikras Alus blog. 05/01/2012.
- Lance Shaner. Yeast presentation/MTF Live. 04/16/2019.
- Lars Marius Garshol. "Brewing in Chuvashia". Larsblog. 02/04/2019.
- Richard Preiss. Milk The Funk Facebook group thread update about Russian landrace farmhouse yeast. 09/21/2018.
- A Unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces uvarum Hybrid Isolated From Norwegian Farmhouse Beer: Characterization and Reconstruction. Kristoffer Krogerus, Richard Preiss, Brian Gibson. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02253.
- Fermentation innovation through complex hybridization of wild and domesticated yeasts. Quinn K. Langdon, David Peris, EmilyClare P. Baker, Dana A. Opulente, Huu-Vang Nguyen, Ursula Bond, Paula Gonçalves, José Paulo Sampaio, Diego Libkind & Chris Todd Hittinger. Nature Ecology & Evolution (2019).
- Richard Preiss. Milk The Funk Facebook group thread on new studies of lager hybrid yeast, including "Muri" identification. 10/22/2019.
- Allen Stone. Milk The Funk Facebook group thread on BSI Norwegian Farmhouse Ale strain. 02/01/2019.