Landrace Yeast

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Although landrace is a term used in many areas, this page will be using it as descriptors of a yeast or mixed culture that derives from a traditional farmhouse/landrace brewing cultures from around the world. This term was first used to describe yeast by Tyrawa et al. (2018) to describe traditional Norwegian kveik yeast [1], and to distinguish them from Saison yeast, which are also sometimes referred to as "farmhouse yeast" [2]. The exact definition of the word "landrace" is debated in the Plant Sciences, and is therefore outside the scope of this wiki [3].

The term "landrace" should not be equated to "kveik". Kveik has been suggested to be a subtype of landrace yeast, but "kveik" is a term used specifically for Norwegian farmhouse brewing yeast and mixed cultures. More information on Norwegian kveik can be found on the Kveik page.

Commercial Availability

Yeast Registry Num Yeast Lab Package Notes
Muri 4 Mainiacal Yeast Dried Kveik - Muri The full, unpurified (no microbes isolated or removed) culture. Limited availability. Muri is genetically the same as WLP351 Bavarian Weizen, and therefore probably a contaminant and not actual farmhouse yeast; see below.
Muri 4 White Labs WLP6788 Norwegian Farmhouse Ale A single strain from a farm called Muri in Olden, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway (6788 is the zip code). It was used in traditional farmhouse brewing up until 1990, then left in dried form in a building on the farm. The son on the farm revived it with difficulty last year and has been using it in modern home brewing since [4]. Purchase from Bryggselv.no. US customers send an email to post @ bryggselv.no. See source information on Lars Garshol's blog for brewing notes. Muri is genetically the same as WLP351 Bavarian Weizen, and therefore probably a contaminant and not actual farmhouse yeast; see below.
Simonaitis 16 The Yeast Bay Simonaitis Lithuanian Farmhouse Single strain isolate kindly provided by Julius Simonaitis via Lars Garshol. Across a wide temperature range this culture will throw a mix of orange, tropical fruit and stone fruit esters that is reminiscent of POG Juice (passionfruit, orange, guava), and produces distinct spicy/earthy/herbal undertones. While not a “kveik” strain, it handles high temperatures and high gravity worts well, with an upper fermentation temperature of 95ºF and a high alcohol tolerance (>10%) [5].
Jovaru 32 Omega Yeast Labs Jovaru™ This strain tests positive for the STA1 gene, an indicator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus. This strain may have the ability to metabolize dextrins over time, resulting in higher than expected attenuation. JOVARU™ is an ALDONA UDRIENĖ™ yeast strain that originates from the famous JOVARU™ Brewery that has been in operation since the mid-19th century [6].

Specific Culture Information

Until the introduction of Emil Chr. Hansen's pure-yeast system in 1883, all yeast was treated in effectively the same way as kveik. However, pure lab yeast generally replaced the ancient cultures all over the world. In farmhouse brewing, the old practices continued until quite recently in several Nordic and Baltic countries. Farmhouse brewing still continues in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. As far as is known, Lithuania is the only country other than Norway in which the old yeast cultures are still alive, and used in the same way as they were in the past. See Lithuanian beer - a rough guide for more information. Genetically speaking, these yeast cultures are generally not in the same family as kveik, and thus are not referred to as "kveik". The alternative nomenclature of "Landrace yeast" has been suggested by Richard Preiss.

Below are the listed known Farmhouse cultures and information we've been able to compile on them.

Simonaitis

One yeast has been collected from farmhouse brewer Julius Simonaitis in Joniškelis, Lithuania. It's a communal yeast that's been shared with the neighbors since time immemorial. NCYC says the yeast consists of 5 different strains of S. cerevisiae [7]. Four of these are closely related, while the fifth is quite different, and is probably a completely different strain. All seem to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Technically, this culture is not considered to be "kveik" because it genetically falls outside of the kveik families and because it is POF+ (phenolic producing) [8][9].

Julius pitches the yeast at 35C and top-harvests it. He ferments 12-16 hours, depending on activity.

People trading this culture have reported that there are lactic acid bacteria present in the culture. It is not known if this lactic acid bacteria was present from the source, or if it was introduced during trading. Julius Simonaitis's beers are reported to not be sour, but he uses a lot of hops in his beer and his beer is reportedly fairly bitter. DeWayne Schaaf reported that the lactic acid bacteria present in the culture he was given produced a favorable acidity. Lars Garshol is waiting on lab results to see if the lactic acid bacteria were present in the original culture [10].

Jovaru Alus

This is another Lithuanian strain from the Jovaru Alus brewery in the small community of Jovarai. The brewer, Aldona Udriene, discusses the history of this true farmhouse brewery in this article. She expressed in the article that she was reluctant to give up the yeast, but Omega Yeast Labs reached an agreement with her to bank the culture and offer it for sale as the product OYL-033. Omega Yeast Labs describes the yeast as, "citrusy esters and restrained phenols..." and having the "character of lemon pith, black pepper, and a soft mouthfeel." The Omega Yeast Labs culture is a single isolate, and Lance Shaner says that there was no evidence of more than one strain of S. cerevisiae in the culture that they received, although there was a Lactobacillus contamination which they removed from the commercially offered Omega Yeast Labs product [11]. Some DNA analysis shows that this strain has a similar degree of separation from S. cerevisiae that other Saccharomyces species included in the analysis do, indicating that this might be a new or different species of Saccharomyces [12][13] (~1:01:30 min in).

(Fast forward to 19:40):

Rima and Marina

Two strains of landrace farmhouse yeast cultures from Chuvashia, Russia were analyzed by Richard Preiss of Escarpment Laboratories referred to by the family names "Rima" and "Marina" (see this tweet and this tweet by Lars Marius Garshol, and the full blog post by Lars). The lab performed ITS sequencing, PCR fingerprinting, and mini 7 day ferments with these strains. Both of the strains were S. cerevisiae, and they were both POF+ (phenol producers), which is distinct from Norwegian kveik strains which are POF- (do not produce phenols). Russian farmhouse yeast that remains unpurified by a lab is called "zakvaska" [14].

According to the PCR fingerprinting, Rima contained at least two strains of S. cerevisiae but maybe more, as well as a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii (a fairly common beer contaminant). The first strain of S. cerevisiae was described as "fruity, relatively clean, and fermented similar to WLP001". The second strain of S. cerevisiae produced high amounts of diacetyl and under attenuated. The Pichia was described as "pretty gross and didn't attenuate much (on its own)".

Marina contained what appears to be three closely related S. cerevisiae strains. They all showed pretty low attenuation after one week, but subsequent fermentations can be carried out longer. The flavors were described as "pretty neutral". There is a fourth yeast strain in the Marina that has yet to be identified [15].

These landrace cultures are listed in the farmhouse registry as #39 and #40. Propagate Lab and Mainiacal Yeast offer Marina commercially. They are being traded by homebrewers and single isolates are available from the NCYC (NCYC 4247 is Marina and NCYC 4263 is Rima).

See also:

Bjarne Muri's Olden Yeast

It was initially found by Krogerus et al. (2018) that the single Muri strain recovered by Bjarne Muri is a hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, and is most closely related to the beer 2 yeast group (kveik falls into the Beer 1 group; see History of Domestication for more information on the beer yeast genetic groups) [16]. Unlike kveik, Muri is POF+ (phenolic) and STA1 (diastaticus). Krogerus then performed full genome sequencing on the Muri strain and discovered that it is a genetic match for WLP351 Bavarian Weizen yeast. This strain is either a contaminant (most likely) or the original yeast used by the Muri family was the same as the WLP351 Bavarian Weizen strain.

See Kristoffer Krogerus's blog post that goes into detail on his findings, as well as his Q&A post on MTF.

Background information:

Yeast banking and commercial availability:

See Also

Additional Articles on MTF Wiki

External Resources

References

  1. Traditional Norwegian Kveik Are a Genetically Distinct Group of Domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brewing Yeasts. Richard Preiss, Caroline Tyrawa, George van der Merwe, Kristoffer Krogerus, Lars Marius Garshol. 2018.
  2. Richard Preiss. Milk The Funk Facebook thread on the various definitions of the term "landrace". 11/30/2018.
  3. Toward an Evolved Concept of Landrace. Francesc Casañas, Joan Simó, Joan Casals, and Jaime Prohens. 2017.
  4. Conversation with Lars Garshol. 6/4/2015.
  5. Simonaitis Lithuanian Farmhouse. The Yeast Bay website. Retrieved 07/06/2019.
  6. Jovaru Lithuanian Farmhouse Yeast. Omeaga Yeast Labs website. Retrieved 05/16/2019.
  7. Lars Marius Garshol. Milk The Funk Facebook thread on the number of strains in Simonaitis. 01/18/2019.
  8. Lars Marius Garshol. Private correspondence with Dan Pixley. 07/11/2018.
  9. Richard Preiss. Family tree diagram of kveik cultures (Simonaitis is called "Joniskelis" in the diagram). Retrieved 07/11/2018.
  10. Lars Garshol, James Thor, and DeWayne Schaaf. Milk The Funk facebook group. 06/22/2017.
  11. Lance Shaner. Milk The Funk thread about the Jovaru yeast strain from Omega Yeast Labs. 09/26/2018.
  12. "Lithuanian Countryside Yeast Tales". Tikras Alus blog. 05/01/2012.
  13. Lance Shaner. Yeast presentation/MTF Live. 04/16/2019.
  14. Lars Marius Garshol. "Brewing in Chuvashia". Larsblog. 02/04/2019.
  15. Richard Preiss. Milk The Funk Facebook group thread update about Russian landrace farmhouse yeast. 09/21/2018.
  16. A Unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces uvarum Hybrid Isolated From Norwegian Farmhouse Beer: Characterization and Reconstruction. Kristoffer Krogerus, Richard Preiss, Brian Gibson. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02253.
  17. Allen Stone. Milk The Funk Facebook group thread on BSI Norwegian Farmhouse Ale strain. 02/01/2019.