Scientific Publications

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A listing of peer reviewed scientific publications and non-peer reviewed scientific studies that focus on subject material that is relevant to sour brewing. Some good journals to keep an eye on for new publications about sour and funky beers include Cerevisia, The Journal of the Institute of Brewing, The International Journal of Food Microbiology, and Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

Some of the papers are freely accessible and others require journal subscriptions for access.

Brettanomyces

Much of the scientific research done to date on Brettanomyces approaches the yeast from the view point of wine production and treating the yeast as a spoilage organism. These papers can still be useful to brewers interested in using Brett while recognizing the possible preconceptions, motivations, and biases that this viewpoint might contribute. Other groups, notably those led by a couple of Belgian researchers as well as Chad Yakobson's masters work, have studied Brett from the viewpoint of a desired component in certain beer fermentations.

Title Authors Date Note
Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., a new acetic acid producing yeast species from olive oil Péter G, Dlauchy D, Tóbiás A, Fülöp L, Podgoršek M, Čadež N. 2017 Not open access.
Fermentation assays reveal differences in sugar and (off-) flavor metabolism across different Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains Sam Crauwels, Filip Van Opstaele, Barbara Jaskula-Goiris, Jan Steensels, Christel Verreth, Lien Bosmans, Caroline Paulussen, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Ronnie de Jonge, Jessika De Clippeleer, Kathleen Marchal, Gorik De Samblanx, Kris A. Willems, Kevin J. Verstrepen, Guido Aerts, Bart Lievens 2016 Not open access.
Comparative transcriptome assembly and genome-guided profiling for Brettanomyces bruxellensis LAMAP2480 during p-coumaric acid stress Liliana Godoy, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Claudio Martinez, Juan A. Ugalde & María Angélica Ganga 2016 Open access.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis, a survivalist prepared for the wine apocalypse and other beverages Brendan D. Smith, Benoit Divol 2016 Not open access.
Independent Evolution of Winner Traits without Whole Genome Duplication in Dekkera Yeasts Yi-Cheng Guo, Lin Zhang, Shao-Xing Dai, Wen-Xing Li, Jun-Juan Zheng, Gong-Hua Li, Jing-Fei Huang 2016 Open access.
Effects of oxygen availability on acetic acid tolerance and intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis Claudia Capusoni, Stefania Arioli, Paolo Zambelli, Md Moktaduzzaman, Diego Mora and Concetta Compagno 2016 Not open access.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis Aroma-Active Compounds Determined by SPME GC-MS Olfactory Analysis C.M. Lucy Joseph, Elizabeth A. Albino, Susan E. Ebeler, Linda F. Bisson 2015 Not open access
Comparative phenomics and targeted use of genomics reveals variation in carbon and nitrogen assimilation among different Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains S. Crauwels, A. Van Assche, R. de Jonge, A. R. Borneman, C. Verreth, P. Troels, G. De Samblanx, K. Marchal, Y. Van de Peer 2015 Not open access.
Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast Michael Lentz and Chad Harris 2015 Open access.
Insight into the Dekkera anomala YV396 genome Samuel Aeschlimann 2015, Sept Self published on Eureka Brewing Blog.
Brettanomyces yeasts — From spoilage organisms to valuable contributors to industrial fermentations Jan Steensels, Luk Daenen, Philippe Malcorps, Guy Derdelinckx, Hubert Verachtert, Kevin J. Verstrepen 2015 Open access.
Assessing Genetic Diversity among Brettanomyces Yeasts by DNA Fingerprinting and Whole-Genome Sequencing Sam Crauwels, Bo Zhu, Jan Steensels, Pieter Busschaert, Gorik De Samblanx, Kathleen Marchal, Kris A. Willems, Kevin J. Verstrepen, and Bart Lievens 2014 Open access.
The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis Anna Judith Schifferdecker, Sofia Dashko, Olena P. Ishchuk and Jure Piškur 2014 Open access. Good summary of up to date information.
Rapid identification of the genus Dekkera/Brettanomyces, the Dekkera subgroup and all individual species M. Hulina, E. Harrisona, M. Stratfordb, A.E. Whealsa 2014 Not open access.
Pure Culture Fermentation Characteristic of Brettanomyces Yeast Species and Their Use in the Brewing Industry Yakobson 2011 MSc thesis. Open access.
Screening and evaluation of the glucoside hydrolase activity in Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces brewing yeasts Daenen, Saison, Sterckx, Delvaux, Verachtert, Derdelinckx 2008 Open access.
Physiological, biochemical and molecular characterisation of hydroxycinnamic acid catabolism by Dekkera and Brettanomyces yeasts Victoria Harris 2010 Open access. PhD thesis. HCA's are the precursors to phenolic compounds in beer. See phenol production in Brettanomyces
Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers Daenen, Saison, Sterckx, Delvaux, Verachtert, Derdelinckx 2008 Open access.
Survey of enzyme activity responsible for phenolic off-flavour production by Dekkera and Brettanomyces yeast Harris, Ford, Jiranek, Grbin 2009 Not open access.
Genetic diversity and physiological traits of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Tuscan Sangiovese wines Agnolucci, Vigentini, Capurso, Merico, Tirelli, Compagno, Foschino, Nuti 2009 Not open access.
Dekkera and Brettanomyces growth and utilisation of hydroxycinnamic acids in synthetic media Harris, Ford Jiranek, Grbin 2008 Not open access.
The effect of sugar concentration and temperature on growth and volatile phenol production by Dekkera bruxellensis in wine Barata, Pagliara, Piccininno, Tarantino, Ciardulli, Malfeito-Ferreira, Loureiro 2008 Open access.
Formation of 4-vinyl and 4-ethyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids: Occurrence of volatile phenolic flavour compounds in beer and distribution of Pad1-activity among brewing yeasts Vanbeneden, Gils, Delvaux, Delvaux 2008 Not open access.
Effect of temperature on Brettanomyces bruxellensis: metabolic and kinetic aspects Brandam C, Castro-Martínez, Délia ML, Ramón-Portugal F, Strehaiano P. 2008 Open access.
Genome Survey Sequencing of the Wine Spoilage Yeast Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis Woolfit, Rozpędowska, Piškur, Wolfe 2007 Open access
Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process Nele Vanbeneden 2007 PhD Thesis. Open access.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis: effect of oxygen on growth and acetic acid production. Aguilar Uscanga, Délia1, and Strehaiano. 2003 Open access.
Acetic acid production by Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts. S.N. Feer 2002, April Not open access.
Role of oxygen on acetic acid production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera in winemaking. Maurizio Ciani and Luisa Ferraro 1999, April Not open access
The Phylogenetic Relationships of Species of the Genus Dekkera VAN DER WALT Based on the Partial Sequences of 18S and 26S Ribosomal RNAs (Saccharomycetaceae) Yuzo Yamada, Minako Matsuda, Kojiro Maeda, Kozaburo Mikata 1994 Open access. Shows that D. custersianus should be reclassified as a new genus.
Localization and Characterization of α-Glucosidase Activity in Brettanomyces lambicus Shantha Kumara, De Cort, Verachtert 1993 Open access.
Esterase Activity in the Genus Brettanomyces Spaepen and Verachtert 1982 Brett ester production and destruction. Open access.
Brettanomyces. I. Occurrence, Characteristics, and Effects on Beer Flavour R. B. Gilliland B.A., B.Sc., F.R.I.C. 1961 Open access.

Other Yeast/Bacteria

Title Authors Date Note
Characterization of genotype and beer fermentation properties of Norwegian Farmhouse Ale Yeasts Rasmussen, Truls C. 2016 Master thesis on Kveik yeast identification.
Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation Catherine L. Ludlow, Gareth A. Cromie, Cecilia Garmendia-Torres, Amy Sirr, Michelle Hays, Colburn Field, Eric W. Jeffery, Justin C. Fay, Aimée M. Dudley 2016 Studied isolating wild S. cerevisiae from coffee beans. Open access.
Screening for new brewing yeasts in the non-Saccharomyces sector with Torulaspora delbrueckii as model Maximilian Michel, Jana Kopecká, Tim Meier-Dörnberg, Martin Zarnkow, Fritz Jacob and Mathias Hutzler 2016 Not open access.
Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioflavour and to reduce ethanol content Laura Canonico, Alice Agarbati, Francesca Comitini, Maurizio Ciani 2016 Not open access.
Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cody M. Rogers, Devon Veatch, Adam Covey, Caleb Staton, Matthew L. Bochman 2016 Describes a method to "train" S. cerevisiae to be more pH tolerant. Not open access.
Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest Irene Stefaninia, Leonardo Dapporto, Luisa Berná, Mario Polsinelli, Stefano Turillazzid, and Duccio Cavalieria 2015 Found that S. cerevisiae not only breeds inside the guts of wasps that eat grapes, but also breeds with other species of yeast to create hybrids that survive better in the guts of the wasps.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a nomadic yeast with no niche? Matthew R. Goddard, and Duncan Greig 2015 Proposes new hypothesis that S. cerevisiae is a generalized and nomadic microbe rather than a fruit-loving microbe based on the "neutral theory of ecology". Open access.
Regional microbial signatures positively correlate with differential wine phenotypes: evidence for a microbial aspect to terroir Knight, Sarah and Klaere, Steffen and Fedrizzi, Bruno and Goddard, Matthew 2015 Open access. This is the first quantitative demonstration of a microbial component of terroir.
Alcohol-brewing properties of acid- and bile-tolerant yeasts co-cultured with lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional handmade domestic dairy products from Inner Mongolia Takashi Kuda Sarengaole, Hajime Takahashi, Bon Kimura 2015 Not open access.
Pyrosequencing reveals regional differences in fruit-associated fungal communities Michael W. Taylor, Peter Tsai, Nicole Anfang, Howard A. Ross, and Matthew R. Goddard 2015 Open access. Showed that yeast diversity on wine grapes differs by region; Saccharomyces made up only 0.00005% of the total readings.
Genetic and physiological characterization of yeast isolated from ripe fruit and analysis of fermentation and brewing potential Michael Lentz, Travis Putzke, Rick Hessler, and Eric Luman 2014 Open access.
Microbial biogeography of wine grapes is conditioned by cultivar, vintage, and climate Bokulich NA, Thorngate JH, Richardson PM, Mills DA. 2014 Suggests link between microbial terroir and vineyard environmental conditions.
Monitoring Seasonal Changes in Winery-Resident Microbiota Nicholas A. Bokulich, Moe Ohta, Paul M. Richardson, David A. Mills 2013
Geographic delineations of yeast communities and populations associated with vines and wines in New Zealand Velimir Gayevskiy and Matthew R Goddard 2012 Study leading up to the 2015 Goddard study above focusing on regional genetic differences in S. cerevisae.
Biotechnological potential of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentations of Malvar (Vitis vinifera cv. L.) Cordero-Bueso, Esteve Zarzoso, Cabellos, Gil-Díaz 2012 Open access. Records secondary metabolites produced by various wild yeasts in mono-culture fermentations of wine must.
Studies on growth and metabolism of Oenococcus oeni on sugars and sugar mixtures D.-S. Zhang and R.W. Lovitt 2005
A history of research on yeasts 9: regulation of sugar metabolism James A. Barnett and Karl-Dieter Entian 2005 Covers Pasteur effect, Custers effect, glucose repression, etc.
Evidence for Domesticated and Wild Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Justin C Fay, Joseph A Benavides 2005 Open access.

Lactic Acid Bacteria

Title Authors Date Note
Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages – impact of lactic acid bacteria strains Sorelle Nsogning Dongmo, Bertram Sacher, Hubert Kollmannsberger, Thomas Becker 2017
Lactic acid bacteria as sensory biomodulators for fermented cereal-based beverages Lorenzo C. Peyer, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K. Arendt 2016
Screening the Hydroxylation of Fatty Acids with Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on the Lactonization of the Hydroxylated Products Yuka Suzuki, Sakiko Hatanaka, Makoto Kanauchi, Shin Kasahara, and Makoto Shimoyamada 2016 Not open access.
Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer Andreas J. Geissler, Jürgen Behr, Kristina von Kamp, Rudi F. Vogel 2015 Not open access.
The Use and Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Malting and Brewing with Their Relationships to Antifungal Activity, Mycotoxins and Gushing: A Review Deirdre P. Lowe and Elke K. Arendt 2012 Open access.
125th Anniversary Review: Bacteria in brewing: The good, the bad and the ugly Vriesekoop, Krahl, Hucker, Menz 2012 Open access.
Lactobacillus: the Next Generation of Malolactic Fermentation Starter Cultures — an Overview Maret du Toit & Lynn Engelbrecht & Elda Lerm & Sibylle Krieger-Weber 2010 Open access. Review paper.
Volatile compounds produced by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in cereal-based substrates. Ivan Salmeron, Pablo Fuciños, Dimitris Charalampopoulos, Severino S. Pandiella 2009
Pediocins: The bacteriocins of Pediococci. Sources, production, properties and applications Maria Papagianni 2009 Open access.
Broth and agar hop-gradient plates used to evaluate the beer-spoilage potential of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates M. Haakensen, A. Schubert, B. Ziola 2009 Measured growth in beer of many strains and species of LAB.
Fundamentals of Beer and Hop Chemistry Keukeleire 1998, August 12 Useful information regarding how beta acids and iso-alpha acids inhibit/effect the grown of gram-positive bacteria and LAB. Open access.
Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance Sakamoto and Konings 2003 Another useful paper for antimicrobial properties of hops and bacterial resistance. Not open access.
Localization and Characterization of α-Glucosidase Activity in Lactobacillus brevis De Cort, Shantha Kumara, Verachtert 1994 Open access.
Growth Response of Lactobacillus brevis to Aeration and Organic Catalysts. J. R. Stamer and B. O. Stoyla. 1967, Sept Referenced by Wyeast 5223 L. brevis. Open Access.
Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pediococcus, including Pediococcus claussenii sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from beer C. Melissa Dobson, Harry Deneer, Sun Lee, Sean Hemmingsen, Sarah Glaze and Barry Ziola 2002 Open access.
Isolation of a Hop-Sensitive Variant of Lactobacillus lindneri and Identification of Genetic Markers for Beer Spoilage Ability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Koji Suzuki, Kazumaru Iijima, Kazutaka Ozaki, and Hiroshi Yamashita 2005 Open access.

Lambic, Spontaneous Fermentation, and other Mixed Fermentation beers

Title Authors Date Note
Effect of mixed cultures on microbiological development in Berliner Weisse (master thesis) Thomas Hübbe 2016 Available on MTF
The microbial diversity of an industrially produced lambic beer shares members of a traditionally produced one and reveals a core microbiota for lambic beer fermentation Spitaels, Wieme, Janssens, Aerts, Van Landschoot, De Vuyst, Vandamme 2015, August Not open access
Microbiota and metabolites of aged bottled gueuze beers converge to the same composition Spitaels, Van Kerrebroeck, Wieme, Snauwaert, Aerts, Van Landschoot, De Vuyst, Vandamme 2015, May Not open access
Cross-Kingdom Chemical Communication Drives a Heritable, Mutually Beneficial Prion-Based Transformation of Metabolism Daniel F. Jarosz, Jessica C.S. Brown, Gordon A. Walker, Manoshi S. Datta, W. Lloyd Ung, Alex K. Lancaster, Assaf Rotem, Amelia Chang, Gregory A. Newby,David A. Weitz, Linda F. Bisson, and Susan Lindquist. 2014, August Open access. See Pediococcus.
An Evolutionarily Conserved Prion-like Element Converts Wild Fungi from Metabolic Specialists to Generalists Daniel F. Jarosz, Alex K. Lancaster, Jessica C.S. Brown, Susan Lindquist. 2014, 28 August Not open access. See Pediococcus.
The Microbial Diversity of Traditional Spontaneously Fermented Lambic Beer Spitaels, Wieme, Janssens, Aerts, Daniel, Van Landschoot, De Vuyst, Vandamme 2014, April 18 Open access
BELGIAN ACIDIC BEERS Daily Reminiscences of the Past Verachtert and Denderlinckx 2014 Not open access.
Taming Wild Yeast: Potential of Conventional and Nonconventional Yeasts in Industrial Fermentations Steensels and Verstrepen 2014 Not open access
Brewhouse-Resident Microbiota Are Responsible for Multi-Stage Fermentation of American Coolship Ale Bokulich, Bamforth, Mills 2012, April 18 Open access.
Characterization of aroma and flavor compounds present in lambic (gueuze) beer Katherine Witrick 2012 PhD Thesis. Open access.
Occurrence of sotolon, abhexon and theaspirane-derived molecules in Gueuze beers. Chemical similarities with ‘yellow wines’ Scholtes, Nizet, Colin 2012 Open access.
Fermentation Studies on the Traditional Russian Drink “Sourish Shchi” Dankovtsev, Vostrikov, Markina 2002 Open access.
Microbiological Aspects of a Mixed Yeast—Bacterial Fermentation in the Production of a Special Belgian Acidic Ale Martens, Iserentant, Verachtert 1997 Open access.
Properties of Belgian acid beers and their microflora. Part I. The production of gueuze and related refreshing acid beers Verachtert H, Iserentant D 1995
Synthesis of Aroma Compounds By Wort Enterobacteria During the First Stage of Lambic Fermentation Martens, Dawoud, Verachtert 1992 Open access.
Wort Enterobacteria and Other Microbial Populations Involved During the First Month of Lambic Fermentation Martens, Dawoud, Verachtert 1991 Open access.
Identification of Lambic Superattenuating Micro-Organisms By the Use of Selective Antibiotics Shantha Kumara and Verachtert 1991 Open access.
Fatty Acids and Esters Produced During the Spontaneous Fermentation of Lambic and Gueuze Spaepen, Van Oevelen, Verachtert 1978 Open access.
Microbiological Aspects of Spontaneous Wort Fermentation in the Production of Lambic and Gueuze Van Oevelen, Spaepen, Timmermans, Verachtert 1977 The source of the data used to create the Apte chart of which microbes are active at a given time in Lambic Fermentation as presented in his 2004 slideshow and in Wild Brews. Open access.
Synthesis of Aroma Components During the Spontaneous Fermentation of Lambic and Gueuze Van Oevelen, De L'Escaille Verachtert 1976 Open access.
Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance Nicholas A Bokulich, Jordyn Bergsveinson, Barry Ziola, David A Mills 2015, March 9 Open access; measures LAB and yeast populations throughout a brewery with a coolship, controlled sour beer production, and traditional clean beer production. Also contains info about hop resistance levels of different LAB species.
Microbial diversity and metabolite composition of Belgian red-brown acidic ales Snauwaert, Roels, Van Nieuwerberg, Van Landschoot, De Vuyst, Vandamme 2016, March Not open access

Historical

These studies focus on historical beer analysis.

Title Authors Date Note
Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts Brigida Gallone1, Jan Steensels1, Troels Prahl, Leah Soriaga, Veerle Saels, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Adriaan Merlevede, Miguel Roncoroni, Karin Voordeckers, Loren Miraglia, Clotilde Teiling, Brian Steffy, Maryann Taylor, Ariel Schwartz, Toby Richardson, Christopher White, Guy Baele, Steven Maere, Kevin J. Verstrepen. 2016-09 Open Access. See also Popular Mechanics overview.
Brettanomyces – hero or villain? Ron Pattenson, Shut Up About Barclay Perkins 2015-05 Ron's analysis of a study on Brettanomyces beers in the Journal of the Institute of Brewing, Volume 67, Issue 3, May-June 1961.
Analysis of Beers from an 1840s’ Shipwreck John Londesborough, Michael Dresel, Brian Gibson, Riikka Juvonen, Ulla Holopainen, Atte Mikkelson, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Kaarina Viljanen, Hannele Virtanen, Arvi Wilpola, Thomas Hofmann, and Annika Wilhelmson 2015-02 Chemical analysis of historical beers found to have bacteria in them. Press conference that says 4 live species of Lactobacillus were found. Open access.

Misc Topics

Title Authors Date Note
The Microbiology of Malting and Brewing Nicholas A. Bokulicha and Charles W. Bamforth 2013, June Open access.
Use of beta-glucosidase activity for flavour enhancement in specialty beers Luk Daenen 2012 (presentation) Open access.
Effects of pH Adjustment and Sodium Ions on Sour Taste Intensity of Organic Acids E.R.D. Neta, S.D. Johanningsmeier, M.A.Drake 2009 Open access.
Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process Nele Vanbeneden 2007 PhD thesis. Open access. Study on 4VG/4VP, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, etc. English sections available.
Ferulic acid release and 4-vinylguaiacol formation during brewing and fermentation: indications for feruloyl esterase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Coghe S, Benoot K, Delvaux F, Vanderhaegen B, Delvaux FR. 2004 Not open access. Studied production of ferulic acid and 4VG production in barley and wheat based beers, fermented with S. cerevisiae.
Organic Acids and Glycerol in Beer. Klopper, Angelino, Tuning, and Vermeire 1986
Changes in resin Composition and Brewing Behaviour of Hops During Storage. A. L. Whitear 1965

Other resources

These studies, presentations, or discussions aren't peer reviewed but they do contain useful info for brewing sour and funky beers. Also a list of database resources.

Title Authors Date Note
National Collect of Yeast Cultures Yeast bank.
ATCC Yeast bank.
Straininfo Database of strains.
Mycobank Database of classified species.
Measurement of Oxygen Transfer Rates for Carboy Closures and Air Locks Gibbs 2011, November 10 Study performed by Better Bottle. Open access.
How to Make Sour Ale: an inquiry Apte 2004 contains Apte's charts for oxygen permeability and other notable references. Open access.
Pickled beer: Concepts of Sour Ale Raj Apte 2004 A presentation about sour beer. Open access.
Lactic Acid Beverages: sour beer, (milk), & soda Raj Apte A presentation about sour beer and other lactic fermentations.
Horse of a Different Color Nate Sampson, Michael Tonsmeire, Steve Gale, Tomme Arthur, Al Buck, Cisco ?, Sean Paxton Round table tasting and discussion of brett primary beers. The author of the transcript is not listed. Open access.
Methods of Creating and Maintaining 'Wild' House Cultures Kyle Kohlmorgan 2013 Presentation at NHC 2013. Notes available here. Audio available from the AHA website past presentations section (must be an AHA member for access).
The Mystery of Lambic Beer Jacques De Keersmaecker 1996 Article in Scientific American. Open access.

See Also

Additional Articles on MTF Wiki

External Resources

References