Wort Souring

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Wort Souring (formally "sour worting") is a process in which lactic acid bacteria (usually Lactobacillus, although there are also Pediococcus cultures available that work well for this technique) is given a "head start", pitched before the yeast so that it will be able to produce significant amounts of lactic acid before the Saccharomyces completes the main fermentation. There are several variations on souring wort, including souring in the primary fermenter, souring in a secondary vessel, or even souring in the boil kettle itself (kettle souring). There are also various methods of inoculating the wort with Lactobacillus. Finally, the brewer has the option of pasteurizing the wort by heating it to kill the Lactobacillus before adding the yeast for the main fermentation. Some creative brewers have applied wort souring techniques to longer aged Mixed Fermentation beers and barrel aged beers. Many brewers prefer this process over Sour Mashing because it can be easier to control, and when implemented properly it produces a clean sour beer in a short amount of time. The possibility of pasteurizing the soured wort also makes this a good method for making sour beers with a lot of residual malt sweetness (e.g. sour barley wines), and should also make it attractive to brewers who are concerned about infection issues in their cold side equipment (equipment that is used post-boil) [1]. When souring wort, some brewers first lower the pH of the wort to 4.0-4.3 before pitching Lactobacillus. This has sometimes been found to help the head retention of the beer, and helps to protect the wort from contaminating microorganisms. For more information, see the Lactobacillus page section on Foam Degradation.

Generally, Pediococcus is not used with this method (Pediococcus is generally used in long aged Mixed Fermentation sours with Brettanomyces), however Bootleg Biology has released a blend of Pediococcus strains that are reportedly good for souring wort.

Important note regarding aluminum pots: souring in an aluminum vessel may strip the aluminum of the protective oxide layer. The oxide layer is only stable at a pH of 4.5 - 8.5. Therefore, kettle souring in an aluminum pot is generally not recommended [2].

"Mixed culture fermentation for sour beers produces one thing, and (kettle souring) produces another thing. If you’re going to make a malty red ale that is kettle soured, don’t call it a Flanders Red. Honor the tradition." - Sean Burke of the Commons Brewery, Kettle Souring Presentation, CBC 2015.

Contamination Concerns

When working with lactic acid-producing bacteria, the brewer’s goal is usually to attain clean-tasting sourness, while obtaining desirable flavor contributions from these bacteria, and simultaneously minimizing off-flavors. It should be noted that off flavors span the range from undesired by most, to desirable to some. For example, isovaleric acid is a compound known for its footy aroma that would be considered an off flavor in many beers, yet it gives a highly desired flavor to certain French cheeses.

With that said, contamination issues are among the biggest challenges when pre-souring wort with Lactobacillus. This is because Lactobacillus does not fully ferment wort by itself (see 100% Lactobacillus fermentation). When yeast fully ferments wort into beer, alcohol, hops, and a low pH all work together to prevent most spoilage microorganisms from contaminating the beer (although contamination can certainly happen with beer spoilage microbes such as Brettanomyces, Pediococcus, etc.) [3]. When fermenting with Lactobacillus by itself, either no alcohol is produced or not enough alcohol is produced to have an antimicrobial effect. Usually hops are not used when souring wort with Lactobacillus because even small amounts of hops completely inhibit most commercial strains, but they also inhibit some spoilage microorganisms. The high available sugars, warm temperatures typically used in souring wort, and a lack of alcohol and hops therefore increases the chances for contamination during souring wort with Lactobacillus.

Contaminates can include a variety of molds, yeasts, and bacteria. Contaminations can have a variety of potentially unfavorable flavor effects on soured wort depending on the type of microbe(s) that caused the contamination. One common off-flavor in kettle soured beers has been associated with butyric acid, which is in and smells like human vomit. Although the exact source of butyric acid in kettle soured beers has not been identified that we know of, butyric acid is produced by anaerobic contaminates and not when Lactobacillus is exposed to oxygen (see Effects of Oxygen on Lactobacillus and butyric acid). Isovaleric acid is another off-flavor that can be produced by both anaerobic and aerobic contaminates.

Another common contaminate from improper wort souring is brewer's yeast (S. cerevisiae). Brewer's yeast is not greatly inhibited by Lactobacillus. Conversely, Lactobacillus is greatly inhibited by the presence of active S. cerevisiae [4]. The warmer temperatures encourage S. cerevisiae to ferment the wort quickly. This often results in a beer that isn't sour because the Lactobacillus are out-competed by the yeast. Signs that yeast has contaminated the wort include the typical signs of yeast fermentation: the presence of a krausen, a gravity shift of more than 1.005 gravity points (or 0.5-1.0° Plato), and looking at a sample of the wort under a microscope. Sources of yeast contamination can come from poor sanitation, but they can also come from the yeast manufacturer themselves. See see 100% Lactobacillus fermentation for more information.

Another source of contamination, which is arguably desired, happens when using a "wild" source of Lactobacillus. For example, when culturing Lactobacillus using non-plating techniques from grains, fruit, or from some other fermented food such as kefir, sauerkraut, etc., yeast and other microbes can carry over from the culturing process (see Alternative Bacteria Sources). The only way to guarantee that only Lactobacillus from a "wild" source such as these ferment the wort, is to isolate the microbe using plating techniques (see Wild Yeast Isolation). Otherwise there is a chance that wild yeast will also survive the culturing process.

Preventing Contamination

Several techniques can be applied to prevent contamination in kettle soured beers. Many of these are covered in the sections below when they apply to specific processes, however we will cover them all in this section as well.

Pre-acidifying wort to 4.5 pH or lower helps to kill many microbes that are not tolerant of low pH. Flushing the wort with CO2 during the souring process is thought to help prevent aerobic contaminates [5]. Maintaining a temperature between 113-120°F (45-49°C) helps encourage some species of Lactobacillus and inhibits heat intolerant contaminates, however some species of Lactobacillus do not do well at these warmer temperatures (see the Lactobacillus culture charts). Pre-boiling the wort has been shown to help greatly with preventing contamination. This is likely due to the killing power of boiling temperatures versus lower temperature pasteurization, as well as the heat and steam killing microbes on the sides of the boil kettle, the lid of the boil kettle, and the air space above the wort. Boil kettles are inherently unsanitary vessels compared to fermentation vessels, so great care should be taken to sanitize the vessel and prevent any air from getting into the vessel during the souring process. Air can get in when temperatures cool and a vacuum is created inside the kettle. Wrapping the boil kettle and lid with plastic wrap has been a typical approach for homebrewers, as well as maintaining a constant temperature so as to avoid creating a vacuum inside the kettle from cooling temperatures. Commercial brewers must also prevent air from getting sucked into the boil kettle. Some have used sanitized and inflated sports/beach balls or something similar to clog the boiler stack during kettle souring, for example. Continuous flushing with CO2 can also help prevent a vacuum from sucking in air. Finally, achieving the desired acidity as quickly as possible helps to cut down on the chances for contamination. Achieving the desired acid development within 48 hours is an ideal goal, but achieving it within 12-24 hours is even better.

Yeast contaminations can be difficult to avoid if they are coming from the manufacturer of the Lactobacillus culture. Look at the culture under a microscope and check for yeast cells, which will be much larger and circular in shape compared to the much smaller, rod-shaped bacteria. Reputable yeast companies will usually offer a replacement for any contaminated Lactobacillus cultures.

Processes

Souring in the Boiler (Kettle Sour)

Also known as kettle souring, souring in the boil kettle is a simple process that is often used if the brewer wants to subsequently heat pasteurize the wort. Pasteurizing the wort has the advantage of allowing the brewer to rack the pasteurized wort into a fermenter and pitch brewer's yeast without fear of an ongoing Lactobacillus infection in their post-boil equipment.

The brewing process is the same for any all grain batch up until the first wort and sparge runnings are collected into the boil kettle. The temperatures that a typical mash out/sparge reach should be enough to pasteurize the wort [6], however we advise heating the wort for a short (1-2 minutes) boil in order to kill a greater degree (2-3 logs more) of thermotolerant microbes [7][8]. Once all of the wort is collected in the boil kettle (and preferably brought to a boil), the wort is chilled to around 80-115°F (37-46°C), depending on the Lactobacillus culture that is being used. Once chilled to the temperature that is appropriate, the wort in the kettle is inoculated with a culture of Lactobacillus. Hops should not be added at any point before inoculating the wort with a culture of Lactobacillus; most species of Lactobacillus will be inhibited by the presence of even very small amounts hops (1-2 IBU or even just hop material from dry hopping). When using a pure culture of Lactobacillus, it is generally a good idea to create a 500 mL starter for ~5-6 gallons of wort.

There are various ways of inoculating the wort. A reliable method is pitching a pure culture of Lactobacillus, or a blend of Lactobacillus cultures. Alternatively, a handful of unmilled malted barley can be added to the kettle for inoculation instead of a pure culture, since the husks of grain carry many microorganisms. If unmilled grain is added, it is thought that filling the head space of the kettle with CO2 will help decrease off-flavors such as "footiness" from Isovaleric Acid, which are produced by aerobic microbes that are naturally present on the grain [9]. Keeping the temperature between 109-115°F (42.8-46°C) will encourage the Lactobacillus resident on the grain and will discourage other bacteria. Temperature consistency is critical during this process [10]. Lowering the pH of the wort to under 4.5 (ideally 4.0 - 4.3) will also discourage many other bacteria from thriving in the wort during the incubation period. This will also help with head retention [11]. Souring with grains should occur within 1 or 2 days if done correctly [10]. Consider Alternative Bacteria Sources for more reliable approaches to using "wild" Lactobacillus, or Lactobacillus from sources other than yeast labs.

If a pure culture of Lactobacillus bacteria is used it is ideal but not necessary to fill the head space of the fermenter with CO2 gas (some brewers have reported that this will help reduce sulfur in the finished beer). Keeping positive pressure in the kettle with CO2 will help prevent contaminates that create butyric acid and other off-flavors from entering the kettle due to negative pressure, and is often the approach that commercial brewers take [12]. The kettle should be held at the desired temperature for 24-72 hours (in some cases longer, but no longer than 5 days). Depending on the strain of Lactobacillus, and the desired sour level, the time of incubation is ultimately a variable that is up to the brewer (see the Lactobacillus page for suggested temperatures and times for specific strains). The kettle lid should be firmly in place and optionally sealed with plastic wrap so that other microorganisms do not get in. Potential for formation of Butyric Acid and Isovaleric Acid when using only a pure culture is extremely slight to none assuming contamination does not occur.

Once the level of acidity is reached (this can be tested with a reliable pH meter, or in the case of using a pure culture can safely be taste tested), the wort is brought to a boil. The wort may be boiled normally in the case of any style of beer that requires a longer boiling process, or it may be boiled for no more than a minute or two in the case of making a Berliner Weissbier. Technically speaking, the wort doesn't need to be boiled at all (this is called Raw Ale). Heat pasteurization at 170°F (76.6°C) for 15 minutes should kill the Lactobacillus culture being used to sour the wort [6].

Deciding whether or not to boil the wort can also depend on whether or not there was a considerable amount of alcohol produced, which commonly happens when the wort is contaminated with yeast. Pure cultures of Lactobacillus do not show typical signs of fermentation that we are used to seeing with yeast fermentations, such as forming a krausen, producing a lot of CO2, or fermenting wort more than ~1.005 gravity points (see 100% Lactobacillus Fermentation). If a yeast contamination produces a significant amount of alcohol during the souring process, then this presents a problem when it comes to boiling. Although 100% pure ethanol boils at 173.1°F/78.4°C [13], the lower the concentration of ethanol in the wort (technically beer at this point if it has been fully attenuated by yeast), the higher the temperature required for boiling off the ethanol. For example, at 5% ABV it takes approximately 197°F/92°C for the ethanol to boil [14][15]. Time is also required to boil off the ethanol, so this may not be as big of a concern as it first appears (warning: vaporized ethanol is highly flammable). Another and perhaps more important consideration is that boiling and high heat pasteurization temperatures can have a negative effect on the flavor of fermented beer. Beer already has anti-bacterial properties, such as low pH, presence of alcohol, and hops (although hops may not be present in wort being soured), so higher pasteurization temperatures aren't necessarily required for beer. For these reasons, the beer industry commonly heat pasteurizes beer at 140°F/60°C for 15 minutes, and this is also adequate for pasteurizing soured beer [16]. In the case of an accidental yeast contamination during the souring process, another option is to simply dump the batch and start again with a pure culture of Lactobacillus. Boiling soured wort that hasn't had an accidental yeast contamination (and thus still has a high specific gravity) probably has less of an effect on the flavor than it does on fully fermented beer. Other than lactic acid, the flavor components that different strains of Lactobacillus produce are not well defined, so it will be difficult to determine if boiling soured wort will have a negative impact. However, brewers who boil kettle soured wort don't often report that the boiling causes flavor issues [17].

Once the soured wort is boiled or heat pasteurized, it can be safely added to the primary fermenting vessel without worries of future infections. The wort is aerated as normal, and brewer's yeast, or Brettanomyces yeast is then pitched into the wort as normal (usually brewer's yeast is used if infection of cold side equipment is a concern). At a pH of 3.4 or lower, the acidity of the wort can reportedly effect the fermentation of some strains of brewer's yeast [18][19]. It is recommended to pitch a healthy starter of yeast, possibly with a higher cell count than normal. In the case of using dry yeast, re-hydrating as per the manufacturer's recommendations and using a yeast nutrient like Go-Ferm is recommended. Many yeast strains have been successfully used by MTF members to ferment pre-acidified wort: US05, S04, WY1098/WLP007/OYL-006, Belle Saison, Sacch Trois, Bret brux, B. clausenii, B. custersianus, Bret Drie (BSI), WY3711, and WY3726 to name a few (see reference) [20]. Michael Tonsmeire has shown results that suggest that English yeast strains might attenuate slightly more and give better flavor results than other strains; Richard Preiss from Escarpment Labs expressed similar observations [21]. Brewers who are having difficulty fully fermenting pre-acidified wort can try growing their yeast in the soured wort (pasteurize the soured wort first if needed) with yeast nutrients (Fermaid K + DAP, for example). This assumes that the wort still has a lot of sugar left over after souring (if not, DME can be added). See Acid Shock Starters for more information.

Souring in the Primary Fermenter

Wort can be soured in the primary fermenter before adding other yeasts. This is generally a good approach for brewers who aren't concerned with pasteurization and infections of their cold side equipment. This has the advantage of possibly producing a more complex sour beer overall, or at least a sour beer that will evolve over time. It has the advantage over a more traditional Mixed Fermentation in that Lactobacillus is used to guarantee at least a certain level of sourness. This is also a good process to use for making a Berliner Weissbier.

The process is very similar to the kettle souring technique, except the wort is never pasteurized after it is soured. The all grain brewing process is the same for any all grain brewing process, except that after the boil the beer is only chilled to the recommended temperature for the Lactobacillus strain that the brewer is going to use. Using grain husks for souring with this method is not advised since the grain will stay in the fermenter during primary fermentation, and unwanted microbes on the grain husks would potentially have a longer exposure to the wort. Instead, the brewer should use a pure strain of Lactobacillus. As a result of not using grains to sour the wort, there is less concern of developing Butyric Acid or Isovaleric Acid with this method. Even still, lowering the pH of the wort to under 4.5 (ideally 4.0 - 4.3) will also discourage contaminating bacteria from thriving in the wort during the incubation period. This will also help with head retention [22]. There is also the option of using a sour yeast cake from another sour beer as the bacteria inoculation.

Once cooled to the desired temperature (usually around 90-115°F or 32.2-46°C), the wort is racked to the primary fermenting vessel. Note that the wort should contain a low amount of IBU's when using this process since IBU's can inhibit many (but not all) species of Lactobacillus. Using no hops is a good approach to getting more acidity, but if hops are required then using less than 6 IBU's is a good guideline in general (consider mash hopping; mash hopping has been reported to reduce IBU's by ~70% [23]). It is generally a good idea to create a 500 mL starter beforehand for ~5-6 gallons of wort (see Lactobacillus starters). Once the wort is racked to the primary fermenting vessel, the Lactobacillus culture is added directly to the fermenter. No other yeasts are added at this time. The Lactobacillus bacteria is allowed to incubate by itself in the wort for 2-5 days with the before mentioned target temperature maintained throughout the incubation period (some Lactobacillus species/strains may continue to produce acidity under lower temperatures). The exact time frame of incubation depends on the species/strain of Lactobacillus, the manufacturer's recommendation, and the brewer's desired acidity level. Acidity can safely be measured with a reliable pH Meter throughout this time. If possible, it is advised that the brewer fill the head space of the fermenter with CO2. Some brewers have reported that this helps to reduce sulfur production, but if Brettanomyces is added to the beer later on in the process and allowed to age, this shouldn't be a concern.

After the desired acidity level is reached from the incubating Lactobacillus bacteria, the brewer can crash cool the fermenter down to the temperature that is desired for the primary fermenting yeast. Both Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces, or a blend can be used as primary fermenting yeast. Brettanomyces is often chosen because of it's higher tolerance of a low pH environment (3.4- pH [18]), although many Saccharomyces strains have been successfully used (see the Souring in the Boil Kettle section above). If the chosen yeast requires aeration and the brewer has the ability, the sour wort should be aerated before pitching yeast. Brewers have had good luck using Fermentis dry yeast products in non-aerated wort. Re-hydrating the dry yeast as per the manufacturer's instructions and with a yeast nutrient such as Go-Ferm is effective [24]. The wort is then fermented out as normal. The brewer can consider other Brewing Methods such as pitching Brettanomyces, a mixed culture, or commercial sour beer dregs into secondary.

Souring in Another Vessel Before Racking to the Primary Fermenter

This process is very similar to souring wort in the kettle. This method is ideal for those who wish to use grains to introduce Lactobacillus to the beer. If done properly, the formation of Butyric Acid and Isovaleric Acid should be minimal.

The wort is mashed and sparged as normal (and alternatively brought to a short boil), and is then lowered to somewhere between 109-115°F (42.8-46°C). This temperature favors Lactobacillus, while discouraging Enterobacteriaceae. Optionally, the mash pH can be lowered to 4.4 with lactic acid or acidulated malt to further discourage Enterobacteriaceae activity. Once the desired temperature (and optionally pH) is reached, a handful of fresh malted unmilled grain is added to the mash and allowed a few minutes to inoculate the mash with the microbes found naturally on the grain husks. The wort is then transferred to a second vessel such as a glass carboy. The vessel should be filled to the very top, minimizing the oxygen levels inside the vessel. The vessel should be stored in a heated environment that maintains a temperature between 109-115°F (42.8-46°C) for 1 to 3 days depending on how much acidity the brewer wants (the faster the souring process the better; Jeff Young from Blue Owl achieves the desired acidity in about 18 hours usually) [10][25].

Once the 1 to 4 day time period has been reached, the wort is transferred to the boil kettle and boiled as normal. Boiling will kill all of the microorganisms in the wort, and will provide the option for adding hops and other kettle additions. Just as with kettle souring, the wort doesn't have to be boiled, but can be instead heat pasteurized at 170°F (76.6°C) for 15 minutes [6], or at 140°F (60°C) for 15 minutes if a yeast contamination produced a significant amount of alcohol. Once boiled or pasteurized, the wort can be chilled and handled in the same way as the above methods for wort souring.

James Spencer provides an article that fully explains his process, as well as a step by step video guide and tasting on Beer and Wine Journal [25].

Tips on Maintaining Heat for Homebrewers

Keeping the temperature as steady as possible for a pure culture Lactobacillus fermentation is not that important. Just try to stay in the range of the temperature best suited for a given species (see the Lactobacillus culture charts). Here are some tips from MTF members on maintaining warm temperatures for wort souring [26][27][28]:

Editor's note: please be cautious when using heat sources to heat plastic fermenters; PET bottles have been known to melt or warp when applying too much heat to them.
  • Electric heating blanket or heating pad.
  • A room space heater with towels or a t-shirt to insulate.
  • If it fits, place the fermenter in an insulated 10 gallon Rubbermaid cooler (like the kind that many people use as mash tuns).
  • For metal vessels such as a kettle, keep it on the stove burner and turn the burner on when heat is lost.
  • Put the wort in a plastic bucket and seal with lead, then lower that bucket into a ten gallon water cooler and close the lid. Optionally, insulate with blankets.
  • Use a glass carboy FermWrap™ heater or another carboy heater attached to a sensor thermowell through the cap and a temperature controller.
  • Use a Brew Belt Fermentation Heating Belt and wrap a "hoody" sweater or some other fabric around it to insulate, and a temperature controller.
  • Use an aquarium heater (Enheim brand recommended), fill a large plastic cooler with water and keep the water warm with the aquarium heater. Set the souring vessel in the cooler.
  • Use an Anova sous vide device - place the vessel in a larger vessel with water, and keep the heat applied to the outside water with the Anova. Works well for maintaining heat for starters too.
  • Build an insulation box out of Styrofoam. See this MTF post and this MTF post.
  • Sour in a keg, and heat the keg. See this MTF post.
  • If not using a plastic vessel, keep the vessel in an oven (if it fits) or an electric smoker.
  • Use a ZooMed Reptile Heater Cable inside of a fermentation chamber. Line the inside of the chamber walls with the wire and secure with duct tape.
  • If maintaining heat is not possible with any of the techniques mentioned, use a species such as L. plantarum that produces acidity at room temperature. Omega Yeast Labs OYL-605 works well without hot temperatures.

How to Pre-Acidify

After the production of the wort, but before pitching the culture of Lactobacillus, some brewers like to slightly lower the pH of the wort with food grade lactic acid (available at homebrew stores) or phosphoric acid before adding the Lactobacillus. Acidifying the wort before pitching Lactobacillus has several benefits, such as discouraging unwanted microbes that may have accidentally been introduced into the wort, and helping to prevent Lactobacillus from degrading foam proteins. The idea is to get the wort down to a pH of 4.0 - 4.4 before adding Lactobacillus.

There currently is no formula for how much lactic acid to add to a volume of wort due to the different buffering capacities of wort [29]. Water chemistry spreadsheets and formulas geared towards mash pH adjustments may not be accurate for wort pH adjustments since wort does not contain grain material, however there has been reports on MTF and recommendations from Martin Brungard (author of Bru'n Water) that Bru'n Water can accurately determine how much lactic acid is needed to lower a wort's pH, or at least provide a starting point [30]. We encourage readers to experiment with water chemistry calculators to see if they can accurate predict wort pH adjustments or get a starting point for how much acid to add [31][32].

Another method of finding out how much acid to add would be to pull a measured portion of the wort out, and add acid in measured amounts until the desired pH is reached. The amount of acid added can then be scaled up to the full volume of the wort. A.J. Delange suggests that the buffering capacity of wort might be half that of the mash (based on the kilograms of malt used in the mash) [30].

Trial and error might be the most practical approach for homebrewers that don't have an abundance of wort to spare for finding out how much acid to add to a sample and scaling that up. Post boil, the wort pH is generally around 5.0 - 5.2. Adjusting the pH of wort before pitching Lactobacillus can then be done fairly easily by taking a trial and error approach. Using 1 mL of 88% lactic acid per .1 shift in pH for 5 gallons of wort is a good starting measurement. As an example, say that 5 gallons of wort has a pH of 5.0 just before pitching the Lactobacillus culture. Begin by adding 5 mL (1 US teaspoon) of food grade lactic acid to the wort for a target of ~4.4 pH. Stir gently, then take another pH reading. Continue to add 1-2 mL of lactic acid until the wort has the desired pH. Derek Springer has observed that it takes about one tablespoon (15 mL) of 88% lactic acid to reach a pH of 4.2 - 4.5 for 5 gallons of wort [33], however a higher amount may be required if the brewer's water is high in bicarbonate (24 mL for 5 gallons of wort to reach a pH of 4.4 was reported by Sean McVeigh for his water which contains 375ppm of bicarbonates [34]). Once a pH of 4.0 - 4.4 is reached, pitch the Lactobacillus culture. This small amount of lactic acid shouldn't have much of an impact on flavor. If a more precise method for determining the required amount of lactic acid is required, a sample of the wort can be pulled and lactic acid or phosphoric acid can be added to it until the target pH is reached, and then that amount can be scaled up (a micropipette might be required to measure very small amounts of lactic/phosphoric acid).

Concerns about Dimethyl Sulphide (DMS)

See Also

Additional Articles on MTF Wiki

External Resources

References

  1. Miller, Matt. Dec 20, 2014. "Fast Souring with Lactobacillus – Best Practices, Sensory, & Science". Sour Beer Blog.
  2. Aluminum Surface Finishing Corrosion Causes and Troubleshooting. W. John Fullen, Boeing Research and Technology & Jennifer Deheck, Boeing, Seattle, Washington, USA. 10/17/2014.
  3. "Fact or Fiction? Can Pathogens Survive in Beer?" Sui Generis Blog. 02/18/2014. Retrieved 11/10/2016.
  4. Effect of mixed cultures on microbiological development in Berliner Weisse (master thesis). Thomas Hübbe. 2016.
  5. Private correspondence with Khristopher Johnson from Green Bench Brewing Co by Dan Pixley. 05/04/2016.]
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Heat pasteurization
  7. Conversation with Bryan of Sui Generis Blog regarding boiling versus lower temperature pasteurization. 11/18/2015.
  8. Lactobacillus 2.0 – Advanced Techniques for Fast Souring Beer. 11/18/2015. Retrieved 11/19/2015.
  9. Personal correspondence with Khristopher Johnson of Green Bench Brewing Co. and Dan Pixley. 05/24/2016.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Conversation with Jeff Young from Blue Owl Brewing Co on souring from grains. 07/21/2016.
  11. Lactobacillus#Foam_Degradation
  12. Personal correspondence with Steph Cope of CraftHaus Brewing Co. 02/06/2016.
  13. Boiling temperature of ethanol
  14. Making Moonshine: Still Temperature. Retrieved 01/11/2016.
  15. Conversation with Russell Carpenter on MTF. 01/11/2016.
  16. A suitable model of microbial survival curves for beer pasteurization. Sencer Buzrul. 2006.
  17. Conversation with Bryan from Sui Generis blog on MTF regarding boiling soured wort. 11/10/2016.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Michael Tonsmeire on HBT
  19. "Quick Sour, then what? Acid Tolerance of Brewer’s Yeast." The Mad Fermentationist blog. Michael Tonsmeire. 12/13/2016. Retrieved 12/14/2016.
  20. Conversation on MTF about using specific yeast strains in acidic wort. 7/6/2015.
  21. MTF conversation with Richard Preiss about English ale strains and pH tolerance. 12/13/2016.
  22. Lactobacillus#Foam_Degradation
  23. Putting Some Numbers on First Wort and Mash Hop Additions. David Curtis NHC 2014 Presentation.
  24. Go-Ferm
  25. 25.0 25.1 Spencer, James. December 15, 2014. Beer and Wine Journal.
  26. Tips from many MTF members on maintaining heat for wort souring. 04/07/2016.
  27. Tips from many MTF members on maintaining heat for wort souring 2. 10/07/2016.
  28. [https://www.facebook.com/groups/MilkTheFunk/permalink/1557805380914337/?comment_id=1557821360912739&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R7%22%7D Tips from many MTF members on maintaining heat for wort souring 3.
  29. A Study in the Practical Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Greg Doss from Wyeast Laboratories Inc. 2014.
  30. 30.0 30.1 A.J. Delange. Homebrewtalk Thread. 07/19/2016.
  31. MTF Thread with Landon Ortiz. 03/03/2016.
  32. Conversation with Adam Boura and Mark Trent on MTF regarding using Bru'n Water for adjusting wort pH. 07/18/2016.
  33. Conversation with Derek Springer on MTF regarding acidifying wort. 04/24/2016.
  34. Conversation with Sean McVeigh on MTF on acidifying wort. 04/23/2016.