Wine

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Natural and wild wine processes, or wine processes that relate to mixed fermentation brewing.

Wine Making Processes

Carbonic Maceration

Biochemistry

Hyperoxidation

Malolactic Fermentation

See the Cider page.

See also:

Lactic Acid Bacteria

Lactobacillus plantarum has been found to produce 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) from precursors in wine (3SH-S-cys and 3SH-S-cysgly) at a more efficient rate than wine yeast. 3SH is a volatile thiol that has a grapefruit-like flavor and aroma and is considered to be an important flavor component of some wines [1]. 50 ppm of total SO2 can inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in finished wine [2], although some species/strains require between 100-256 mg/L total SO2 in order to be inhibited (see Pediococcus) [3].

Lactic acid bacteria are often suppressed by yeast fermentation, which is caused in part by the yeast consuming nutrients. Very low levels of alcohol (1.5%) have been shown to stimulate early growth of LAB, but growth and MLF begin to become inhibited around 6% ABV. Yeast produce SO2, which can also inhibit LAB. However, other studies have suggested that alcohol, SO2, and low nutrients are not the only suppressors to LAB. Studies have also shown that there can be an antagonistic relationship between O. oeni and Pediococcus in wine, which may be due to toxins produced by one that affects the other known as "bacteriocins". Bacteriocins have been proposed to winemakers by scientists as a way to reduce the populations of unwanted lactic acid bacteria, although further research is needed to perfect this approach to winemaking [3].

The pH of the wine can have an impact on which lactic acid bacteria species will grow. Below a pH of 3.5, O. oeni is the most dominant LAB species. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus are more common in wines above a pH of 3.5, with Pediococcus being most common in wines with a pH between 3.8 and 4.0, although Pediococcus has also been found in wines with a pH as low as 3.2 [3].

See also:

Other Microbes

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Biogenic Amines

Biogenic amines are produced by all living things and are present in many fermented beverages. High dosages can lead to health issues such as vomiting, headache, asthma, hypotension, and cardiac palpitation. Thus, biogenic amines have been studied intensely [3]. For more information, see "Fact or Fiction – Biogenic Amines in Beer" by Dr. Bryan Heit.

See also:

Beer and Wine Hybrids

Legal limits of Must in Beer

Advice from James Howat of Black Project Spontaneous Ales on how much must can be added to beer legally for commercial brewers: contact the TTB and your local state government to present your formula and find out how much must is allowed. The state law may not match with the TTB law. Once they answer, ask for the code for the law for your records [4].

MTF Threads

Threads on using wine pomace:

Threads on harvesting yeast from wine grapes:

Comparisons to Mixed Fermentation Beer

MTF Discussions

See Also

Additional Articles on MTF Wiki

External Resources

References